In Memory of Alexey Yakovlevich Chervonenkis
29 September, 2014
Alexey Yakovlevich Chervonenkis tragically died on September 22. A professor of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology as well as Royal Holloway, University of London, and a lecturer at the Yandex School of Data Analysis, he made a huge contribution to the theory of machine learning.
So far there have been three periods in the science of machine learning: pre-computer, computational, and the contemporary period of big data.
The first great work of Chervonenkis and Vapnik was this article from 1971. The theory of the uniform convergence of the frequencies of occurrence of events to their probabilities set the course for the development of this field of science for several decades ahead.
This was the period of the “theoretical” development of machine learning. At that time, only some kind of M-200 or, at best, a BESM was available for computing so there was not yet even any talk of widespread 'practical application in the nation's industry'. But even then it could already be used to find targets in the air, for example, or to help detect abnormalities in echocardiograms.
Then came the second period in the history of machine learning – the computational stage. In the 1990s people learned, for example, how to quite effectively recognise and digitise texts (including handwritten documents) and keep e-mail free of spam. Half of these methods worked on the renowned SVM (Support Vector Machine) method conceived in the early 1990s by Chervonenkis and Vapnik (Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension). In the mid-2000s all the well-known companies worked on SVMs – including us, and Yahoo!, and Google, and Amazon. SVM is described in any textbook on the subject.
And then came the third era in the development of machine learning, with the appearance of big data and methods for working with it. Now it appears that everything around us, all objects and services, will become a bit smarter and learn to help us in every detail, anticipating our desires to some extent. This is similar to how various mechanical and chemical inventions have changed our lives, only now in a slightly different sphere.
In this third era, Chervonenkis taught at the Yandex School of Data Analysis, and presented the development of his fundamental 1971 work at our conference.
Alexey Chervonenkis loved to walk. He would walk 20 kilometres a day – around Moscow, or London, or forests – that’s how he thought. In summer he had an operation and he couldn’t walk for three weeks. Then one day he started walking again – first a kilometre, then two, then three. And last week he set off on a 20-kilometre walk along a familiar route through Losiny Ostrov National Park.
New Marketplace to Organise Household Services in Russia
23 September, 2014
Yandex launches a marketplace for household services. The new web-based service exchange allows providers of a variety of services ranging from appliance repairs and installations to cleaning and moving home to find their clients, while those who require such services can find the best deals. The marketplace website lists service providers’ information, including their prices and client reviews. Service consumers can leave their feedback and also rate the quality of the service they received to help others choose the best provider.
The new marketplace, called Yandex.Master, where ‘master’ means someone who does their job really well, is currently available in Moscow and St Petersburg. Residents in the two of Russia’s largest cities make about 800,000 searches about help with small errands and household services per month. Yandex.Master was designed to bring transparency, structure and safety to a chaotic market of private household services in Russia. Provider ratings and client feedback on the marketplace are expected to promote open competition, which in its turn will organise service pricing and improve the quality of services in general.
Yandex has already seen success with structuring an offline market. Yandex.Taxi, our taxi service aggregator, was launched in Moscow in 2011 when the ‘gypsy cab’ culture reigned on the road. Random pricing, old and dirty cars, unpredictable and illegal drivers, road accidents have all been eliminated with the introduction of a desktop service supplemented with an app that was based on automated algorithms, aggregation, ranking, client feedback and a tight control of service quality. It took only slightly more than one year to completely transform the taxi service market in Moscow and St Petersburg and make a taxi ride predictable price-wise, safe and enjoyable for any client. Taxi service companies in these two cities receive more than 700,000 taxi bookings per month through Yandex.Taxi. It’s a valuable client source for them and it makes them care about their reputation, while Yandex receives percentage from each booking.
Just like Yandex.Taxi, Yandex.Master also has a strict quality control system, which makes sure each service provider is vetted before their offer appears on the website. Yandex.Master’s quality control team make trial service requests and manage negative feedback. Provider’s feedback history and pricing also play a part in how service quality is maintained. Yandex.Master is available at master.yandex.ru and will also be released soon as an app for iPhone. Currently, the marketplace partners with over 70 service providers and aggregators. To try this form of marketing, service providers will be able to promote their offers on the marketplace for free until 2015, when we’re planning to introduce a pay-per-lead model.
Yandex's Translation App for iPhone and iPad Now Provides Translations When Offline
5 September, 2014
Translation apps on mobile devices sure come in handy when you’re travelling to different countries where you don’t know the local language. But usually they use the internet to perform their translations, which means you need to go online to get help communicating with people or deciphering restaurant menus.
We have recently released an offline version of our Yandex.Translate mobile app for iPhone and iPad. So now this application can work without connecting to the internet, saving you the cost of internet roaming or the trouble of finding a wi-fi hotspot.
Yandex.Translate can be installed from App Store for free. After that, just go to the settings and choose the language pair or pairs that you need to translate to and from, and download the translation database onto your device. Five language pairs with English are available for offline translation: English-German, English-French, English-Italian, English-Spanish and English-Russian. If an English-speaking user is travelling from the UK to Spain, they’ll only need the English-Spanish offline translation database to get by day-to-day, while the other language pairs will only be available online (the app warns about this). After returning home to the UK, the user can delete the English-Spanish offline translation data to free up space.
While we’re on the subject of space and size, we really went to great lengths to get the balance right. As you might know, statistical machine translation is based on searching and indexing parallel texts on the internet. We look for already translated texts and phrases, compare them with the original and rank them according to how often they occur. You can read more about that here. These parallel texts, phrases and word combinations are quite cumbersome, taking up gigabytes on our servers.
For the translation app to work offline, we had to streamline the parallel translation database, so that only the most common translations remained. For example, if the full translation database gives 100 different ways to translate “where can I get the best tapas in Barcelona” into Spanish, the mobile version will retain only the 10 most commonly used translations.
We understand that this kind of streamlining can lower the quality of offline translations, and solving this problem was our biggest challenge. We ran a multitude of different tests and experiments to determine the optimal database size that would retain an acceptable translation quality for offline mobile gadgets. For every kind of translation, the optimal size turned out to be 500 MB. Larger (that is, with the addition of more translation variations) brings insignificant improvements to quality, even if the size is multiplied. And reducing the size and the number of translation options causes serious loss of quality without freeing up much space.
Yandex’s offline translation app can help users in daily life situations in foreign countries, whether they’re on vacation or a business trip: telling a taxi driver where to take them, comprehending what’s on a menu, understanding what street signs and warning signs say. These are the situations in which mobile translation apps are most often used. Our statistics also show that Yandex.Translate is used in private correspondence, school homework and university assignments, for reading tourism guides or news on the internet, for translating recipes, poems and songs. The average length of translations on mobile devices is five to seven words. At present, Yandex.Translate handles about 400,000 translations on mobile platforms every day. Most of our users are in Russia, but we are working on making the app popular outside our home country.
Since we first announced it in December 2012, the capabilities of mobile Yandex.Translate have grown enormously: it now “knows” 44 languages, offering a text-to-speech function for some – meaning it not only translates a phrase from your native language into a foreign one, but also lets you hear how it sounds when spoken.
Yandex.Taxi and MTS Take Clients for a Supercar Ride
26 August, 2014
Yandex.Taxi, our cab-hailing service, has teamed up with MTS, one of Russia’s leading mobile providers, to give a few lucky Moscovites a chance to have a free ride in a luxury car.
For the three months starting in August, after making an order for a taxi through the Yandex.Taxi app or on the service’s website, a lucky customer in Russia’s capital has a chance to have a free ride to their chosen destination in one of four luxury cars – two Maserati Quattroportes, a Porsche Panamera or a Chevrolet Camaro. The journey will also be complemented with free high-speed WiFi 4G LTE service, courtesy of MTS.
The MTS-sponsored supercar ride ‘lottery’ is part of Yandex.Taxi’s regular service, which automatically picks the closest available taxi to client’s location and delivers a safe and comfortable cab to a client in about seven minutes on average.
Currently, Yandex.Taxi serves more than 630,000 taxi bookings in Moscow per month. In the three months of the duration of the ‘lottery', each supercar is expected to respond to about 17 cab requests per day, which gives a chance to approximately one in 300 Yandex.Taxi rides to be something special.
Everything Is Solved – Yandex.Algorithm Programming Championship Celebrates Winners in Berlin
5 August, 2014
Yandex's annual competitive programming championship, Yandex.Algorithm, has produced its winners. The top winner is Gennady Korotkevich of Belarus (currently a student of St. Petersburg ITMO University) with four solutions out of a possible six and -66 minutes of penalty time. He received his well-deserved 300,000 rubles (about €6,000 of the total prize fund of €10,800) – this is the second time in a row that he has won the grand prix of Yandex.Algorithm.
Kazuhiro Hosaka (Tokyo University, Japan) also solved four problems but with -90 minutes of penalty time, and was awarded 150,000 rubles (about €3,000) of the prize fund and second place. And student Qinshi Wang from Tsinghua University (Beijing, China) claimed the remaining 90,000 (€1,800) by solving four problems with -125 minutes of penalty time and finishing in third place.
The final round of Yandex.Algorithm took place on August 1 at the Radisson Blu SAS Hotel in Berlin, just next door to newly opened Yandex R&D office in the capital of Germany.
Having started in 2011 with only a few programmers flexing their algorithmic muscles in a special event organised by Yandex's Summer School, this year Yandex.Algorithm saw 3,890 competitors from 72 countries vying for a place in the finals. Luck, reinforced with talent and skill, was on the side of 25 participants from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, China, Taiwan, Japan and the United States who reached the final round.
Competition in the finals was tough, as expected, with some of the world's strongest players in competitive programming showing what they are worth against previous Yandex.Algorithm winners, as well as multiple champions of other renowned international championships, including ACM ICPC and TopCoder Open, and hands-on computer engineers working at Facebook and Google. Yandex employees are excluded from participation under the terms and conditions of the contest.
All problems in the contest, including the six algorithmic tasks in the final round, were developed by a team of professional computer engineers and active competitive programmers from Carnegie Mellon University, Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Google and Yandex. You can see the problems and solutions here. In addition to having practical experience solving problems similar to those presented in the contest on a daily basis, the Yandex specialists who have contributed to the contest share their knowledge with students at the Yandex School of Data Analysis.
The Yandex School of Data Analysis is a free Master’s-level program in computer science and data analysis offered by Yandex to graduates in engineering, mathematics, computer science or related fields. Three hundred and twenty-two students have graduated from the school since it was founded in 2007. Headquartered in Moscow at Yandex, the School of Data Analysis partners with leading research centres and has branches in other cities in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
Yandex School of Data Analysis Graduates Win Medals at World Team Programming Championship
27 June, 2014
Yandex School of Data Analysis graduates Mikhail Kolupayev and Vyacheslav Alipov have won bronze medals at the World Finals of the International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM ICPC). The 2014 graduates of the school competed in this week’s finals in Yekaterinburg as members of the National Research University Higher School of Economics team.
ACM ICPC is the premier team programming championship worldwide and the most renowned competition of its kind.
First place at ACM ICPC 2014 went to a team from St. Petersburg State University. Team members Dmitry Egorov and Egor Suvorov are students of St. Petersburg’s Computer Science Center, which the School of Data Analysis helped create. The other gold medal-winning teams (ACM ICPC awards gold to the top four) are from Moscow State University, Peking University and the National Taiwan University.
Yandex congratulates the winners and place-getters, and looks forward to the Algorithm-2014 individual programming finals this August in Berlin, organised by the company.
Yandex.Disk Gives Users More Control Over Their Content on Social Networks
26 June, 2014
Your content is yours and only yours. It doesn’t stop belonging to you even after you share it online. That’s what we believe in, at least. Yandex.Disk, our cloud storage service, now has a functionality which allows the service users to syphon all photos posted on their Facebook, VK.com and some other social network accounts into folders on their Yandex.Disk – just in a couple of clicks.
Using Yandex.Disk’s new photo import feature, they can save on their cloud storage service not only the photos they shared themselves, but also those images in which they were tagged by someone else. The users of the cloud service can also share their photos stored on Yandex.Disk simultaneously to their Facebook, VK.com or other accounts – one image or whole album at a time. The service’s built-in photo-editing tool can be used to enhance the quality of pictures or add filters, text or graphics before publishing.
Yandex.Disk’s new functionality, currently available only on desktop, gives users more control over their photos on the internet and also simplifies their management. This opportunity might interest businesses, such as stock photo agencies or image banks, or web-based photo printing companies, who will be able to increase their customer base by simplifying their processes and thus attracting new non-professional contributors. Yandex.Disk’s integration with social networks is just one step on the way toward deep integration with image-based services via API.
Since its launch in April 2012, Yandex.Disk has been evolving to meet the needs of the majority of its users. Having started as a cloud service offering 20GB of free storage space to everyone, Yandex.Disk responded to popular demand later on and expanded its range by providing an opportunity to buy more space, at flexible rates, to those who needed it. The cloud service’s technology was also used to help mobile users transfer their content from their old Symbian, Java or WindowsMobile phone to a new iOS- or Android-based device.
Yandex.Disk is available in English, Turkish, Russian and Ukrainian as a web service, as well as a desktop app for Windows, OS X and Linux platforms, and a mobile app for iOS, Android and Windows Phone devices.
With over five million international user accounts on top of 19 million users registered in Russia, Yandex.Disk enjoys catering for the needs of the global audience and appreciates the trust of its users wherever they are.
What you see is what you get on Yandex
29 May, 2014
Reverse image search – or searching not by words but by visual content – has just become available to users of Yandex.com. This feature works on computer vision technology created by developers at Yandex. We’ve named it “Sibir” (Russian for “Siberia”), from the acronym CBIR, which stands for “content-based image retrieval”.
The technology transforms pictures, submitted by users in the form of search queries, into sets of “visual phrases” – that is, numerical representations of images’ key features. Next, from the billions of pictures available on the internet, the search engine selects images containing the same visual phrases as those in the submitted picture, sifting out all the rest. This is an important step, because speeding up the process depends on reducing the scope of the search. The computer then compares the position of key features on the images and ranks them according to their similarity to the submitted picture, so that the closest resemblances will be at the top of the list. This entire process – from uploading or selecting an image to search results – takes less than a second.
Last year we announced Sibir in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. Since then, we have been studying how this feature is used and in which situations. In a year we have come to understand that reverse image search is something like a toothache. While we don’t have it, we don’t think about it. But as soon as a tooth starts to ache, we’d sell our soul for a dentist. So while reverse image search is far from being the most in-demand service on the internet, when the need arises it’s acute.
Here are the five most frequent situations in which users need reverse image search:
1. “Are they lying to me with a false image?”
Is that a genuine portrait of the person trying to make friends with you on a social network or dating website? Is it the actual car/flat/bike/kitchenware that a private seller is trying to flog on an online forum or classified advertisements website? Is this really the beach and hotel that the travel agency is sending you to?
2. “What the hell is that?”
Submit an unidentified image as your search query and find one just like it, but this time with a caption describing what is shown. So that you won’t mistake, say, an African purple frog for a mole or a shrew (heaven forbid!).
3. “I need the same image, but in higher resolution or without cropping.”
Picture editors at all sorts of web-based or offline publications, including newspapers, magazines, books and catalogues, or anyone working on a presentation or report, be it professionally or as a student, will appreciate a possibility to find a desired image to exact specifications.
4. “I’m a photographer and I’d like to check whether my copyright has been infringed online.”
Professional photographers or artists can use this search feature to make sure they aren’t missing on royalties.
5. “I saw a cool watch on the internet but the model wasn’t named. I want to use that image to search internet stores and find one selling exactly that model.”
Reverse image search is a godsend to shopacholics. Or to anyone on the lookout for a birthday gift or a wedding present for their favourite blogger posting pictures of objects of their desire on their blog.
Computer vision is a very complex, research- and resource-intense technology. While many companies and scientific centres are researching it and have developed technologies capable of working with small collections of pictures, very few have developed products based on computer vision that can work with tens of billions of images. Before the industry mastered the method of image search using computer vision, search engines found pictures by using the accompanying text that describes the visual content. This had its drawbacks, for example the query “ants” could easily turn up pictures of caterpillars from a nature article on the subject of “ants against caterpillars”.
Our image search is just the first step on what will be a rather difficult path. Yandex today can offer its users pictures that match an uploaded image or have identical fragments, but the day when we’ll be able to tell our users what it is that they have photographed isn’t far away. Even now Yandex’s reverse image search can find not only that exact same picture, but also other images containing the same object.
Yandex's Annual International Programming Contest Invites Participants to Compete in Solving Algorithmic Problems
22 April, 2014
Yandex.Algorithm 2014 will have its final round on the 1st of August on the premises of Yandex's newly opened Berlin office. In addition to showing their skills in competitive programming, those reaching the final round of the contest will have an opportunity to socialise and browse the city's famous attractions during the three days of the finals.
Last year's event gathered more than three thousand participants from 84 countries, including 16 programmers from Germany, six Swiss nationals and two Austrians. One of the German contestants qualified 20th in the final round, which was held in one of St. Petersburg's most magnificent palaces and saw a Belarusian win the competition, with a Russian national scoring second and a student from Taiwan finishing in the third place.
The Yandex.Algorithm contest is open to everyone regardless of their educational background, location or occupation. The official language of the competition is English. The total prize fund for this competition is 540,000 roubles (about €10,800), with the major portion – 300,000 roubles (about €6,000) – going to the winner. The second and third places will give their winners 150,000 roubles (about €3,000) and 90,000 roubles (€1,800) respectively.
The programming championship will consist of six rounds that will last 100 minutes each. The warm-up round will take place on May 16. Registered contestants will need to solve at least one problem to participate in the qualifying round, which will be held one week after that – on May 25. The three championship rounds will be held online from July 1 to July 15 and will determine 25 top performers who will compete in the finals in Berlin on August 1.
Tasks in the Yandex.Algorithm contest are provided by the Yandex experts, who, according to the rules of the contest, cannot compete, but can contribute to the contest as part of the international organising team, which includes experienced experts from Russia, Poland and the United States.
In contrast to other programming competitions, Yandex.Algorithm allows contestants to choose when and how their solutions are evaluated – individually and right after submission, or in total and only when all of the solutions have been submitted. The first option gives additional points to each solution, although it also removes an opportunity to correct a solution before submitting. This arrangement gives contestants more flexibility in their competitive strategy and a better chance to win.
Arctic Virtual Tour Images Appear on Yandex.Maps
18 April, 2014
Panoramic images of Franz Joseph Land, an uninhabited, but historically attractive archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, have been added to Yandex.Maps. Following the steps of the great Arctic explorers of the past, including the pioneer discoverers, Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht of Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition, who gave name to the islands, as well as Fridtjof Nansen and Frederick George Jackson, among others, web users can now witness the bare beauty of the extreme geography and weather without leaving the comfort of their armchair.
The images were brought to Yandex.Maps by our content provider, neq4, who was lucky enough to join the National Geographic – Russian Geographical Society expedition to Franz Joseph Land as part of their Pristine Seas project.
Now all Yandex.Maps users can share, albeit virtually, the experience of frozen waterfalls and mossy Arctic rocks, see the memorial landmark cross for Georgy Sedov and his expedition on Hooker Island, ‘stand’ on the edge of the northernmost point of the Eurasian continent, and even find a proof that postal service is still the ultimate outpost of civilization.
The expedition took 42 days and gave us 255 panoramic images of the Arctic region made of 1,020 snapshots taken on eleven of a group of 191 islands comprising the Franz Joseph Land archipelago.
To offer web users an opportunity to virtually move around a location, Yandex.Maps creates interactive panoramic street views using high-resolution cameras attached to a GPS-equipped car. In areas that are closed to motor vehicles, cameras are attached to a bicycle or carried by hand. Read more about how panoramic virtual tours on Yandex.Maps are created in Products and Technologies.
Registered Office in Amsterdam
Address: Schiphol Boulevard 165
1118 BG Schiphol
tel.: +31 (0) 20 206 6970
Headquarters in Russia
Address16, Leo Tolstoy St., Moscow 119021, Russia
Toll-free number for regional users
Marketing & Media Relations
tel. +7 495 974 3538
AddressPiskarevskiy prospekt, building 2, block 2, 4th floor, Benois Business Centre, 195027, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Toll-free number for regional users
Address10 Hohryakova St., Ekaterinburg 620014, Russia
Receptionfax +7 343 385-01-99
Sales Officetel. +7 343 385-01-00
Toll-free number for regional users 8 800 333-9639 (or 8 800 333-YNDX)
Address35 Krasnoyarskaya St., Novosibirsk 630004, Russia
Receptionfax +7 343 385-01-99
Sales Officetel. +7 383 230-43-06
Address6 Spartakovskaya Street, 11th floor, right wing, Kazan 420107, Russia
Receptiontel. +7 843 524-71-71
Address70D, Gvardeysky Business Centre, Dolomanovsky Lane, Rostov-on-Don, 344011, Russia
Tel. +7 (863) 2-688-300
Address:Lobachevsky Plaza, ulitsa Alekseevskaya, 10/16, Nizhny Novgorod, 603000
Tel. +7 (831) 233 06 06
AddressSuite 30, 19–21 Bohdana Khmelnytskoho Street, Kyiv, 01030 Ukraine
Reception+38 044 586 41 48, fax. +38 044 586 41 48 ext. 6665
Marketing & Media Relations
For general inquiries
Client Service Department+38 044 586 41 48 ext. 2601
AddressPolsky Uzviz 11, Morsky-2 Business Center (8th floor), Odessa 65026, Ukraine
Receptiontel./fax: +38 0487 37 44 10, +38 0445 86 41 48
Marketing & Media Relations
For general inquiries
Client Service Department+38 044 586 41 48 ext. 2601
Address1a (4th Floor), Kazanskaya St., Simferopol
Receptiontel. +7 495 739 70 00, fax +7 495 739 70 70
AddressOffice 308, Rubin Plaza Business Center, 5 Dzerzhinskogo prospekt, Minsk, 220036, Belarus
Reception+375 17 328-19-61, fax. +375 17 328-15-14
Mecidiyeköy Yolu Caddesi No: 12,
Trump Towers 2. Kule, 15. Kat, Ofis No: 1501-1502
34387 Mecidiyeköy, Şişli, İstanbul - Türkiye
Tel. +90 212 386 87 60 (pbx), fax. +90 212 284 46 48
Marketing & Media Relationspr@yandex.com.tr
Address:Citybay Business Center, Werftestrasse 4, CH 6005 Lucerne, Switzerland
Tel. +41-41-248-08-60, fax. +41-41-248-08-63
Address:Odeonhaus Limmatquai 2, 8001 Zürich, Switzerland
Tel. + 41 44 252 50 00
Address:Karl-Liebknecht-Straße, 1, 10178 Berlin, Germany
© 1997–2014 Yandex